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Diamond Mining
Diamond mining dates back in history to the 9th century Before Christ. Diamonds hold the myth still today and they are the most expensive and successful gemstones in the human history. Let us look at the brief history of diamond mining and examine which are the most successful diamond mining places in the world.

Diamond mining is the process with which they try to get diamond crystals out from volcanic pipes, specifically those from kimberlite and lamproite. These pipes are excavated by special diamond drilling machines. These are the ones, which have the highest change to bring diamond crystals up to the surface. Diamonds are formed of carbon crystals deep inside the Earth due to the extreme temperature and pressure conditions down there.

The story of diamond mining started in India, a country which is worldwide famous for its wealthy maharajas who were known to bathe in diamonds in the old times. In real, the biggest diamond mines were found in India’s Guntur and Krishna regions of the Krishna Valley and river delta in Southern India. Until the 18th Century, India played a leading role in the global diamond mining and diamond business. The most famous diamond in the world the Koh-I-Noor also comes from India making the largest stone in the British Crown worn by several generations of Queens starting from Queen Victoria, to whom the large diamond had been handed over in 1850. With the exhausting of its larger diamond resources in Guntur, India still keeps smaller diamond mines in Panna and approximately 80% of the world’s total diamonds are cut in India.

The main diamond mining activity of the modern times, which has caused a large upset and huge richness for one country, happened to be in South Africa, then called Rhodesia, previously occupied by the Bur settlers of Dutch origin. The British Henry Rhodes to whom the largest business in the world can be thanked along with the natural resource of South Africa has created the largest diamond empire in the world. The first diamonds have been found in South Africa in 1870. Today along with the Congo, Angola and Zimbabwe regions, Africa gives 49% of the mined diamonds to the world. Other important diamond mining fields can be found in the New England and New South Wales area of Australia, from where the hardest diamonds come. Russia, Brazil and Canada also well present the diamond-mining platform in the world. The largest and most prominent diamond trading company in the world is still the South African De Beers Company.

There have been several controversies concerning diamond mining, especially those mined in Central Africa, a politically unstable region that it has been always. Still 2-3% of the yearly-mined diamonds come from unreliable resources tribes who want to use the income won by diamonds for funding their wars or they cause upset by the unbearable conditions they force others for diamond mining. These are called blood diamonds or conflict diamonds and unfortunately, they are still well present in the world’s diamond industry. Talking about the most expensive and worthy stone in the world, this is no wonder. In order to stop these non-humanitarian and dangerous actions the world, diamond federations have created a new law called Kimberley Process. Diamond traders must suit the standards prescribed by this process and prove that the incomes they win will not be used for any bad reasons or committing any crime or war. Unfortunately, this treaty can be quite easily crossed but at least gives some sort of guarantee for most diamond traders.

The World Federation of Diamond Bourses acts as the main controller over global diamond selling. Diamonds can only be purchased in one of the 29 diamond bourses all over the world. Thanks to both the Dubai Diamond Exchange and the Indian Bharat Diamond Bourse, the United Arab Emirates alone with Dubai is more than present in the global diamond business. Diamond mining, production, cut and selling are four different procedures mostly happening in different places. Although Dubai has no diamond mining resources, it takes a large part of the selling and cutting processes. Diamond mining is over a growing control due to all criminal activities that surround it.
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